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Mt. Athos history
From: http://www.samstar.ucoz.ru/publ/25-1-0-18

According to tradition, the first Russian who visited Mount Athos, were retainers of Princess Olga, who went to Constantinople, where it took baptism. The history of Russian monasticism on Mount Athos usually begin with 1169, when the act of the Supreme Control Mount Athos, Russian, lived in the monastery Ksilurgu, was in the possession of small zahudavshy monastyrek "Thessalonians". But the monastery of the Assumption of the Virgin (Ksilurgu) mentioned in the acts of management in 1030 and later (1142) inventory of property therein, including manuscripts and church plate, allows researchers to argue that the Russian secures its long before 1169.

Preserved the news, dated no earlier than 1379, on arrival in Novgorod from Athos elders, probably accompanied to Russia, Metropolitan Cyprian. At the same time on Mount Athos athlete abbot of the monastery in Novgorod on Fox Hill Hilarion. He brought from Mount Athos list of famous works of Abbot Nikon Montenegrin "Taktikon" that has already in 1397 with the blessing of the Archbishop "two kalugera Jacob da Piminov" make a new list in the Novgorod Lisitskaya Barlaam abbot at the monastery. Another postrizhennik Lisitsky monastery - Venerable. Arseny Konevsky († 1447) was adopted in 1390 by John Abbot of the Holy Mountain, which had worked for three years. Back in 1393 in Novgorod, he brought the icon of the Mother of God in the blessing of the Holy Mountain, as well as coenobite Athos Charter, under which was built lives in a monastery on the island Konevets, located on Lake Ladoga. In Novgorod within the first inhabitants of Athos appeared in the middle of the XIV century, when the Venerable. Lazarus Muromsky († 1391), who came to Russia from the Roman monastery of Santa Prassede and founded the Holy Dormition Murom Monastery on Lake Onega, joins its associate Church of the elder Theodosius.

Another mainstay Svyatogorsk monastic tradition in Russia in the era of Metropolitan Cyprian was in 1389, Vologda Savior stone monastery on Kubenskoye Lake, where St. blgv. kn. Dimitri Donskoy sent abbot Dionysius arrived from Athos Holy Mountain, who became in 1418 the Archbishop of Rostov. From it took vows and the blessing of the Holy Mountain saints Dionysius Glushitsky († 1437) and Alexander Kushtsky († 1439). Pupil of Dionysius the Holy Mountain and Venerable. Dionysius was Glushitskogo Venerable. Gregory Pelshemsky, Vologda Miracle Worker († 1442). Athos tradition in the Savior Monastery Stone remained until the elder Paisija Yaroslavov and his pupil - teacher. Nil of Sora († 1508).

Among the disciples of Venerable. Sergei Radonezhsky († 1392), was postrizhennik Mount Athos - Venerable. Sergius Nuromsky († 1412), a native Greek. With the blessing of PRP. Venerable Sergius Radonezhsky. Sergius Nuromsky then labored in the neighborhood and friendship with another student Trinity Abbot - Venerable. Paul Komel (Obnorsky) († 1429). Another disciple of Venerable. Sergius - Epiphanius the Wise - also paid a visit to Mount Athos, as reported in the drafting of "Eulogy prep. Sergey Radonezhsky ". In 1419-1420 gg. ierodiakon Trinity-Sergius Monastery Zosimus made his "journey" to Jerusalem to Constantinople and, captured by them in the Book glagolemoy Xenos, in other words Wanderer ", which lists 22 Athos monastery:" And vzydohom on the holy mountain, and pohodihom in all the churches, and byhom in monastyreh in the holy version, and bowed to tamp the feast of the Transfiguration. And all the monasteries in the holy mount 22. Hsieh same names are: 1) Lavra, 2) Vatoped, 3) Hilondar, 4) Russian monastery, call the Saint Panteleimon, 5) Pandakrator, 6) Svimon, 7) Verversky, 8) Zufgri, 9) Dochiariou monastery, 10) Xenos, 11) Alup, 12) Kapakal, 13) Kultumos, 14) Protaty, 15) Kseratopal, 16) Filiton, 17) Vasilevpirgy, 18) Pavlova desert, behold the same dorm living, 19) Dionysius Monastery, 20) Grigoriev monastery, 21) Simon Petran, 22) Kastamonu. Blessed by Church of the father ...».

In 1389, together with Metropolitan Pimen traveled to Constantinople Smolnyanin Ignatius, who was with the blessing of Metropolitan description of travel, in some lists having the name "Pimenov Journey to Constantinople." A sample of "Journey" included in "The Legend of the summer vkrattse" was complemented by Ignatius essays on Thessalonica and Mount Athos, where Ignatius was in 1396. Some 1419 dates back to "Journey to the Sacred Mountain" Tver abbot of Sheba, founded in 1397 Visherskii monastery, where he was brought from Mount Athos list Helmsman Serbian version, and where the statute imposed Athos John Tzimisces.

In addition to direct personal contacts of the Holy Mountain and Russian monks appeared and from century to century grew stronger unity of the canonical (the distribution of the same edition Aleksievskoy Studion charter, drawn up by the Constantinople Patriarch Alexy approx. 1034, on Mount Athos and the Kiev caves in PRP. Feodosia Crypt) as well as liturgical and temple associated with the general worship celebration of the Assumption of the Theotokos, which was dedicated to the main Athos Katholikon Protata in Kars. Shortly after the death of Venerable. Dimitri Prilutsk († 1392), a former associate of PRP. Sergei Radonezhsky and founder of the Savior Prilutsk monastery near Vologda, his disciple and successor Pachomius asked Archimandrite Dosifei of the Nizhny Novgorod Crypt Ascension Monastery, founded in 1328 originally from Kiev-Pechersk Lavra of St.. Dionysius of Suzdal, the rules of the Holy Mountain: "Kako inotsi usually kept in their cells" and "defunct novices live. According to the Venerable. Dosifei that spoke to the teachings of the Holy Mountain Athos, "nun living in Startseva will and blessing, and brothers live - which, by their kelyam - drzhat si otnachala generally equal to the end of their abdomen." The main rule is for the monks of Mount Athos for st. Dosifei that they "drzhat silence and rumors are running around, rebellion mirskogo", striving to isihastskoy devotional practice, where the central place occupied Isusova prayer. Apart from the Constitution (the Rules), the holy mountain ", for st. Dosifej brought from Mount Athos to Russ rank of the singing of psalms, accompanied the Psalms: "Kako befits a petit 12 individual psalms, they also poyahu in the days and in the night Fathers pustinnii, they are also remembers the books of our fathers and the lives of many and pain." In an early manuscript of "Chin" (MFN OSRK, A.1. № 18. Ll. 261-299), he is accompanied by a postscript: "This Bo rank brought from the holy mountain Dosifej Reverend Archimandrite Caves".

At the time of the Crusades (1204-1261 gg.) Athos suffer persecution by the Roman papacy, ruined monastery, the monks are resisting the forcible imposition of ecclesiastical union with Rome.

The second half of XIV century - the time of reconstruction of destroyed Latins mansions. This helps Emperors Andronicus II and Andronicus III Palaiologos, Serbian Tsar Stefan Dusan. In the same time linked the name of the last holy Mount Athos - St. Gregory Palamas. In 1333 he was appointed abbot of the monastery Esfigmenskogo in the northern part of the Holy Mountain. During the 30 years of the XIV century in the life of the Eastern Church brewing events, placing in a number of St. Gregory the Great universal apologists of Orthodoxy. Around 1330 in Constantinople from Calabria arrived learned monk Barlaam. Soon Barlaam went to Mount Athos, met there with the way of spiritual life hesychasm and, based on the dogma of the incomprehensibility of God's creatures, has announced a clever doing heretical teachings. Barlaam entered into a dispute with the monks and tried to prove createdness light of Tabor. St. Gregory, defending the doctrine of the divine light of Tabor, outlined his arguments in the theological work "in defense of the Triad svyaschennobezmolvstvuyuschih" (1338). By 1340 Athos devotees of the saint with an overall response to the attacks of Barlaam - the so-called "Church of the Tomos". At the Council of Constantinople in 1341 in the church of Hagia Sophia there was a dispute with St. Gregory Palamas Varlaam, focusing on the nature of the light of Tabor. May 27, 1341 Council adopted the provisions of St. Gregory Palamas on the fact that God, unapproachable in His Essence, reveals Himself in the energies, which face the world and accessible to perception, but are not made. Although the teachings of Barlaam were condemned as heresy and he anathematized, disputes between palamitami and varlaamitami not ended. Among the followers of Barlaam were Akindynos monk and patriarch John Kalenas XIV (1341-1347); to them inclined Emperor Andronicus III Palaeologus (1323-1341). Akindynos made a number of treatises, which declared St. Gregory and Mount Athos monks guilty of church troubles. Saint wrote a detailed refutation of conjectures Akindinov. But despite this prelate excommunicated and subjected to prison; conclusion, which lasted three years. In 1347, when John the XIV to the patriarchal throne was replaced by Isidore (1347-1349), St. Gregory Palamas was released and was elevated to the rank of archbishop of Thessalonica. In 1351 Vlaherna Orthodox Church solemnly testified of his teachings. Svt. Gregory Palamas peacefully passed away to God November 14, 1359. In 1368 he was canonized at the Council of Constantinople to the Patriarch Filofei (1354-1355, 1362-1376), who wrote a life of service and the prelate.

1453 - year of the fall of Constantinople and the collapse of the Byzantine Empire. With the fall of the Second Rome fell, and Athos. Cloister were destroyed or left derelict. Thus ended the era of ancient piety on Mount Athos.

In future editions we will tell about the history of ancient Mount Athos mansions and shrines that had been stored on the Holy Mountain.

be continued

In preparing the material used snippets OG Ulyanov "The influence of the Holy Mount Athos in particular veneration of the Holy Trinity in the Metropolitan Cyprian" from "Christian Art"

Photo by Vladislav Burlutskaya, Vladimir and Konstantin Budkin, as well as the author's site